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Hungary: Disinformation Resilience Index

Introduction Historically, the presence of Russian culture in Hungary was strengthened by the state during the years of communism. Russian was introduced as an obligatory foreign language, and politically acceptable pieces of Russian literature were widely read. Youth exchange and other forms of day-to-day cooperation existed for four decades. At the same time, Russian cultural […]

Georgia: Disinformation Resilience Index

Introduction After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the proclamation of independence by Georgia, the Kremlin continued to actively meddle with the domestic politics of the country. Russia supported separatist forces in the regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 2008, Russia undertook military intervention on the territory of Georgia, followed by war with Georgia. […]

Estonia: Disinformation Resilience Index

Introduction Estonia has been in the orbit of Russia’s strategic interests for many years and for many complex historical reasons. As a result, Estonia has experienced various types of influence activities on different scales. Since regaining independence in 1991, Russia’s so-called ‘soft power’ in Estonia is both traceable and observable in several domains, such as the […]

Czech Republic: Desinformation Resilience Index

Introduction After the fall of the communist regime in 1989, Czechoslovak officials started the process of orienting the country’s foreign policy towards the West. The stress was on building good relations with neighbouring countries, those in the EU and NATO. On January 1, 1993, the federation split, and the Czech Republic was established. During the […]

Belarus: Desinformation Resilience Index

Introduction Belarus gained independence in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Nations in Transit 2017 report defines the political regime in Belarus as consolidated authoritarianism. The president of the country, Alexander Lukashenka, has ruled since 1994. Belarus is heavily dependent on Russia economically, politically, militarily, culturally, and ideologically. However, a well-functioning bureaucracy, the […]

Azerbaijan:Desinformation Resielience Index

Introduction The geopolitical location of Azerbaijan, the only route for the Caspian oil and gas resources to reach the world markets avoiding both Russia and Iran, makes it an alluring destination for Kremlin-inspired propaganda. This is because the Kremlin tries to monopolise all energy and transit routes to and from Europe, hence making it essential […]

Armenia:Desinformation Resilience Index

Introduction For Armenia, the onset of independence in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union came as an abrupt shock. Even prior to independence, Armenia faced the dual and daunting challenges of outright war over Nagorno-Karabakh with neighbouring Azerbaijan that erupted in February 1988, and was struggling to recover from a devastating earthquake […]

Systemic Response to Kremlin-Led Disinformation in the EaP countries Discussed at the Disinformation Resilience Index Launch Event

On 16 July 2018, the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum held the launch event of the Disinformation Resilience Index in Brussels. The event was hosted by the Permanent Representation of the Republic of Latvia to the European Union and saw the presentation of the results of the Disinformation Resilience Index and the report for the Eastern Partnership Region. Speakers […]


The general approach to security in Romania went through a process of significant evolution in the last century although the events of 2008 in Georgia and 2014 have accelerated the process of such evolution. Strengthening Trans-Atlantic bonds, perceiving the security situation in the wider Black Sea region as a challenge to Romania’s national security and […]


Russian military aggression against Ukraine in 2014 took place in the situation of autocratic decision-making, to be more precise, this military and political decision was made by one person, the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin. All procedures and documents legitimizing this decision were adopted post factum in retrospect. Those Russian strategic documents that were in […]


Russian aggression against Ukraine was one of the major drivers of the UK security reassessment in 2015, which aimed to put an end to the period of defence spending cuts and openly acknowledged the resurgence of state-based threats. Moreover, the 2015 National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review introduced a whole range of steps to counter this aggression, […]

The third powers and Ukraine

Introduction For the last four years, Ukrainian foreign policy has been wholly focused on the European and Euro-Atlantic dimensions. This has often negatively influenced its relations with other countries, where it has failed to demonstrate a strategic vision and proactive approach. While cooperation with the US and resistance to Russian aggression have ranked high on […]