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While Kiev considers it a Russian–Ukrainian conflict, Moscow perceives it as a Russian–West confrontation
Russia does not clearly outline the perimeter of its vital interests, perhaps in an attempt to preserve some strategic ambiguity for NATO.
The mobilizing success of the moral shocks is interpreted through introducing the notion of emotional path dependence
By thinking that Europe is “finished business” NATO almost lost the feeling of importance and sense of partnership on its immediate borders.
External challenges in the form of an oil embargo in 1973, the above-mentioned “gas crisis” and the necessity to ensure energy imports have little effects on European foreign energy policy
the absence of hard security assurances to the partner countries within the framework of the ENP or under other EU’s policies provoked Russia to launch a hybrid war in Ukraine in 2014